Biology of Mental Illness and Treatment

Spring 2016 Seminar
January 28 - March 17

Course Objectives:

  • Deepen knowledge of relevant bio-psychological concepts
  • Expand repertoire (of language, metaphors, diagrams) for discussions of biology with patients
  • Develop useful habits for consumption of biological psychiatry research literature
  • Dispel myths & assumptions about the biology of mental illness


Attendance of all 8 classes is expected. By Class 2, please provide Jack and Heather with your call schedule.


Heather C. Abercrombie
Phone: 263-6126

Jack B. Nitschke
Phone: 263-6083


Class 1: Introduction
January 28

Class 2: Neural circuitry
February 4

Class 3: Treatment of depression
February 11

Class 4: Treatment of anxiety
February 18

Class 5: Role-plays
February 25

Class 6: Early environment & child psychopathology
March 3

Class 7: Role-plays
March 10

Class 8: Wrap-up: What have you learned in this course and implemented in your clinical work?
March 17
Summary Sheet


Background Readings:

Human Brain Coloring Book by Diamond, Scheibel, & Elson
Especially recommended:  Plates 1-1 to 2-8; Plates 5-29 to 5-32; Plates 5-35 to 5-48

The Physiology Coloring Book (2nd Edition) by Kapit, Macey, & Meisami
Especially recommended: Section on Endocrine System

Raichle, M.E. (1994). Visualizing the mind: Strategies of cognitive science and techniques of modern brain imaging open a window to the neural systems responsible for thought. Scientific American, 270, 58-64.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2004). Stressed-out memories. Scientific American Mind, 14(5), 28-33.

3D Brain App


Relevant Journal Articles:

Psychopathology, adaptation to the environment, and neuroplasticity:

Excerpts from: Miller, G.A. (2010). Mistreating psychology in the decades of the brain. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 716-743.

Neuroplasticity: Key readings:

Castren, E. & Hen, R. (2013). Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions. Trends in Neurosciences.

Citri, A. & Malenka, R.C. (2008). Synaptic plasticity: Multiple forms, functions, and mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 18-41.

Holloway, M. (2003). The mutable brain. Scientific American, 289, 78-85.

Pittenger, C. & Duman, R.S. (2008). Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: A convergence of mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 33, 88-109.

Joëls, M. & Krugers, H.J. (2007). LTP after stress: Up or down? Neural Plasticity.

Tononi G. & Cirelli C. (2006). Sleep function and synaptic homeostasis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10, 49-62.

Nonreductionistic viewpoints:

Miller, G.A. (2010). Mistreating psychology in the decades of the brain. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 716-743.

Marshall, P.J. (2009). Relating psychology and neuroscience: Taking up the challenges. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 113-125.

Weiss, P.A. (1967). One plus one does not equal two. In: G.C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk, & F.O. Schmitt (Eds.), The Neurosciences: A Study Program (pp. 801-821). New York: Rockefeller University Press.

Kosslyn, S.M., Cacioppo, J.T., Davidson, R.J., Hugdahl, K., Lovallo, W.R., Spiegel, D., & Rose, R. (2002). Bridging psychology and biology: The analysis of individuals in groups. American Psychologist, 57, 341-351.

Davidson, R.J. (1997). The proper role of psychology in psychopathology research: Four noble truths. Psychopathology Research, 8, 1-9.

Wager, T.D. (2006). Do we need to study the brain to understand the mind? APS Observer, 19.

Examples of reductionistic viewpoint:

Hyman, S.E. (2003). Diagnosing disorders. Scientific American, 289, 96-103.

Hyman, S.E. (2007). Can neuroscience be integrated into the DSM-V? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8, 725-732.


Neuroanatomy of emotion, fear, and anxiety:

Grupe, D.W. & Nitschke, J.B. (2013). Uncertainty and anticipation in anxiety: An integrated neurobiological and psychological perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14, 488-501.

Functional neuroanatomy:

Dalgleish, T. (2004). The emotional brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 582-589.

Davidson, R.J., Jackson, D.C., & Kalin, N.H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890-909.

Davis, M., & Whalen, P.J. (2001). The amygdala: Vigilance and emotion. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 13-34.

Nitschke, J.B., Sarinopoulos, I., Mackiewicz, K.L., Schaefer, H.S., & Davidson, R.J. (2006). Functional neuroanatomy of aversion and its anticipation. NeuroImage, 29, 106-116.

Rolls, E.T. (2004) The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Brain & Cognition, 55, 11-29.

Gusnard, D.A. & Raichle, M.E. (2001). Searching for a baseline: Functional imaging and the resting human brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 685-94.

Davidson, R.J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. American Psychologist, 55, 1196-1214.

Davidson, R.J., & Irwin, W. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in Cognitive Science, 3, 11-21.

Miller, G. (2008). Growing pains for fMRI. Science, 320,1412-1414.

Begley, S. (2009, February 9). Of voodoo and the brain: Patterns of neural activity and thoughts or feelings are not as tightly linked as scientists have claimed. Newsweek.

Damasio, A.R. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. New York: Harcourt.

Damasio, A.R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon.

LeDoux, J.E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster.

LeDoux, J.E. (2002). Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Viking.

Rolls, E.T. (1999). The brain and emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Neuroanatomy of anxiety:

Martin, E.I., Ressler, K.J., Binder, E., & Nemeroff, C.B. (2009). The neurobiology of anxiety disorders: Brain imaging, genetics, and psychoneuroendocrinology. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32, 549-575

Mahan, A.L. & Ressler, K.J. (2012). Fear conditioning, synaptic plasticity and the amygdala: Implications for posttraumatic stress disorder. Trends in Neurosciences, 35, 24-35.

Milad, M.R. & Rauch, S.L. (2012). Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Beyond segregated cortico-striatal pathways. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 43-51.

Etkin, A. & Wager, T.D. (2007). Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: A meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1476-1488.

Nitschke, J.B., Sarinopoulos, I., Oathes, D.J., Johnstone, T., Whalen, P.J., Davidson, R.J., & Kalin, N.H. (2009). Anticipatory activation in the amygdala and anterior cingulate in generalized anxiety disorder and prediction of treatment response. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 302-310.

Goldin, P.R., Manber, T., Hakimi, S., Canli, T., & Gross, J.J. (2009). Neural bases of social anxiety disorder: Emotional reactivity and cognitive regulation during social and physical threat. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 170-180.

Davis, M., Walker, D.L., Miles, L., & Grillon, C. (2010). Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: Role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 35, 105-135.

Davis, M. (1998). Are different parts of the extended amygdala involved in fear versus anxiety? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1239-1247.

Karl, A., Schaefer, M., Malta, L.S., Dörfel, D., Rohleder, N., & Werner, A. (2006). A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 1004-1031.

Nitschke, J.B., & Heller, W. (2005). Distinguishing neural substrates of heterogeneity among anxiety disorders. International Review of Neurobiology, 67, 1-42.

Bakshi, V.P. & Kalin, N.H. (2000). Corticotropin-releasing hormone and animal models of anxiety: Gene-environment interactions. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1175-1198.

Charney, D.S., Grillon, C.G., & Bremner, J.D. (1998). The neurobiological basis of anxiety and fear: Circuits, mechanisms, and neurochemical interactions (Part 1). Neuroscientist, 4, 35-44.

Charney, D.S., Grillon, C.G., & Bremner, J.D. (1998) The neurobiological basis of anxiety and fear: Circuits, mechanisms, and neurochemical interactions (Part 2). Neuroscientist, 4, 122-132.

Rauch, S.L., Savage, C.R., Alpert, N.M., Fischman, A.J., & Jenike, M.A. (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of anxiety: A study of three disorders using positron emission tomography and symptom provocation. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 446-452.

LeDoux, J. (1998). Fear and the brain: Where have we been, and where are we going? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1229-1238.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., Rickman, M., & Davidson, R.J. (1998). Individual differences in freezing and cortisol in infant and rhesus monkeys. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 286-292.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., & Davidson, R.J. (2000). Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone levels are elevated in monkeys with patterns of brain activity associated with fearful temperament. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 579-585.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., Davidson, R.J., & Kelley, A.E. (2001). The primate amygdala mediates acute fear but not behavioral and physiological components of anxious temperament. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 2067-2074.

Grillon, C.G. (2002). Startle reactivity and anxiety disorders: Aversive conditioning, context, and neurobiology. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 958-975.

HPA dysregulation in anxiety:

Yehuda, R. & LeDoux, J. (2007). Response variation following trauma: A translational neuroscience approach to understanding PTSD. Neuron, 56, 19-32.

Yehuda, R. (2006). Advances in understanding neuroendocrine alterations in PTSD and their
therapeutic implications. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1071, 137-166.

Abelson, J.L., Khan, S., Liberzon, I., & Young, E.A. (2007). HPA axis activity in patients with panic disorder: review and synthesis of four studies. Depress Anxiety, 24, 66-76.

Acute cortisol and heart rate response to trauma may predict the development of PTSD symptoms:

Yehuda, R., McFarlane, A.C., & Shalev, A.Y. (1998). Predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder from the acute response to a traumatic event. Biol Psychiatry, 44, 1305-1313.

McFarlane, A.C., Atchison, M., & Yehuda, R. (1997). The acute stress response following motor vehicle accidents and its relation to PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 821, 437-441.

Zatzick, D.F., Russo, J., Pitman, R.K., Rivara, F., Jurkovich, G., & Roy-Byrne, P. (2005). Reevaluating the association between emergency department heart rate and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: A public health approach. Biol Psychiatry, 57, 91-95.


Emerging treatments of anxiety:

Norberg, M.M., Krystal, J.H., & Tolin, D.F. (2008). A meta-analysis of D-cycloserine and the facilitation of fear extinction and exposure therapy. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 1118-1126.

Quirk, G.J., Paré, D., Richardson, R., Herry, C., Monfils, M.H., Schiller, D., & Vicentic, A. (2010). Erasing fear memories with extinction training. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 14993-14997.

Kandel, E.R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 457-469.

Extinction of fear learning:

Myers, K.M., & Davis, M. (2002). Behavioral and neural analysis of extinction. Neuron, 36, 567-584.

Milad, M.R., & Quirk, G.J. (2002). Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature, 420, 70-74.

Krystal, J.H. (Ed.). (2006). Biological Psychiatry (Vol. 60, Issue 4). New York: Plenum. [Special Issue]

D-cycloserine enhancement of exposure therapy:

Norberg, M.M., Krystal, J.H., & Tolin, D.F. (2008). A meta-analysis of D-cycloserine and the facilitation of fear extinction and exposure therapy. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 1118-1126.

Otto, M.W., Tolin, D.F., Simon, N.M., Pearlson, G.D., Basden, S., Meunier, S.A., Hofmann, S.G., Eisenmenger, K., Krystal, J.H., & Pollack, M.H. (2010). Efficacy of D-cycloserine for enhancing response to cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 365-370.

Davis, M., Ressler, K., Rothbaum, B.O., & Richardson, R. (2006). Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction: Translation from preclinical to clinical work. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 369-375.

Davis, M., Myers, K.M., Ressler, K.J., & Rothbaum, B.O. (2005). Facilitation of extinction of conditioned fear by D-cycloserine: Implications for psychotherapy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 214-219.

Rothbaum, B.O. (2008). Critical parameters for D-cycloserine enhancement of cognitive-behaviorial therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 293-296.

Shim, S.S., Hammonds, M.D., & Vrabel, M.M. (2008). D-cycloserine augmentation for behavioral therapy. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1050.

Kalisch, R., Holt, B., Petrovic, P., De Martino, B., Klöppel, S., Büchel, C., & Dolan, R.J. (2009). The NMDA agonist d-cycloserine facilitates fear memory consolidation in humans. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 187-196.

Wilhelm, S., Buhlmann, U., Tolin, D.F., Meunier, S.A., Pearlson, G.D., Reese, H.E., Cannistraro, P., Jenike, M.A., & Rauch, S.L. (2008). Augmentation of behavior therapy with d-cycloserine for obsessive-compulsive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 335-341.

Kushner, M.G., Kim, S.W., Donahue, C., Thuras, P., Adson, D., Kotlyar, M., McCabe, J., Peterson, J., & Foa, E.B. (2007). D-cycloserine augmented exposure therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 835-838.

Guastella, A.J., Dadds, M.R., Lovibond, P.F., Mitchell, P., & Richardson, R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of d-cycloserine on exposure therapy for spider fear. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 466-471.

Guastella, A.J., Lovibond, P.F., Dadds, M.R., Mitchell, P., & Richardson, R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of d-cycloserine on extinction and fear conditioning in humans. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 663-672.

Hofmann, S.G., Meuret, A.E., Smits, J.A.J., Simon, N.M., Pollack, M.H., Eisenmenger, K., Shiekh, M., & Otto, M.W. (2006). Augmentation of exposure therapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 298-304.

Hofmann, S.G., Pollack, M.H., & Otto, M.W. (2006). Augmentation treatment of psychotherapy for anxiety disorders with D-cycloserine. CNS Drug Reviews, 12, 208-217.

Ressler, K.J., Rothbaum, B.O., Tannenbaum, L., Anderson, P., Graap, K., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., & Davis, M. (2004). Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: Use of D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1136-1144.

Benzodiazapines interfere with effectiveness of exposure therapy:

Wilhelm, F.H. & Roth, W.T. (1997). Acute and delayed effects of alprazolam on flight phobics during exposure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 831-841.

Memory reconsolidation and "erasing" fear memories (the combined reconsolidation/extinction technique):

Quirk, G.J., Paré, D., Richardson, R., Herry, C., Monfils, M.H., Schiller, D., & Vicentic, A. (2010). Erasing fear memories with extinction training. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 14993-14997.

Monfils, M.-H., Cowansage, K.K., Klann, E., & LeDoux, J.E. (2009). Extinction-reconsolidation boundaries: Key to persistent attenuation of fear memories. Science, 324, 951-955.

Schiller, D., Monfils, M.-H., Raio, C.M., Johnson, D.C., LeDoux, J.E., & Phelps, E.A. (2010). Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms. Nature, 463, 49-53.

Karpova, N.N., Pickenhagen, A., Lindholm, J., Tiraboschi, E., Kulesskaya, N., Ágústsdóttir, A., Antila, H., Popova, D., Akamine, Y., Sullivan, R., Hen, R., Drew, L.J., & Castrén, E. (2011). Fear erasure in mice requires synergy between antidepressant drugs and extinction training. Science, 334, 1731-1734.

Kindt, M., Soeter, M., & Vervliet, B. (2009). Beyond extinction: Erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 256-258. [Supplementary Figures and Legends]

Han, J.H., Kushner, S.A., Yiu, A.P., Hsiang, H.L., Buch, T., Waisman, A., Bontempi, B., Neve, R.L., Frankland, P.W., & Josselyn, S.A. (2009). Selective erasure of a fear memory. Science, 323, 1492-1496.

Forcato, C., Burgos, V.L., Argibay, P.F., Molina, V.A., Pedreira, M.E., & Maldonado, H. (2007). Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans. Learning & Memory, 14, 295-303.

Emerging pharmacological treatments for anxiety:

Garakani, A., Mathew, S.J., & Charney, D.S. (2006). Neurobiology of anxiety disorders and implications for treatment. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 73, 941-949.

de Quervain, D.J. & Margraf, J. (2008). Glucocorticoids for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias: A novel therapeutic approach. Eur J Pharmacol, 583, 365-371.

de Quervain, D.J. (2008). Glucocorticoid-induced reduction of traumatic memories: implications for the treatment of PTSD. Prog Brain Res, 167, 239-247.

Holsboer, F. & Ising, M. (2008). Central CRH system in depression and anxiety--evidence from clinical studies with CRH1 receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol, 583, 350-357.

Ising, M. & Holsboer, F. (2007). CRH-sub-1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, 15, 519-528.

Aerni, A., Traber, R., Hock, C., Roozendaal, B., Schelling, G., Papassotiropoulos, A., Nitsch, R.M., Schnyder, U., & de Quervain, D.J.-F. (2004). Low-dose cortisol for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1488-1490.

Mathew, S.J., Vythilingam, M., Murrough, J.W., Zarate, C.A., Jr., Feder, A., Luckenbaugh, D.A., Kinkead, B., Parides, M.K., Trist. D.G., Bani, M.S., Bettica, P.U., Ratti, E.M., & Charney, D.S. (2011). A selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in chronic PTSD: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 21, 221-229.

Pitman, R.K. & Delahanty, D.L. (2005). Conceptually driven pharmacologic approaches to acute trauma. CNS Spectrums, 10, 99-106.

Raskind, M.A., Peskind, E.R., Hoff, D.J., Hart, K.L., Holmes, H.A., Warren, D., Shofer, J., O'Connell, J., Taylor, F., Gross, C., Rohde, K., & McFall, M.E. (2006). A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry.

Taylor, F.B., Lowe, K., Thompson, C., McFall, M.M., Peskind, E.R., Kanter, E.D., Allison, N., Williams, J., Martin, P., & Raskind, M.A. (2006). Daytime prazosin reduces psychological distress to trauma specific cues in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 577-581.


Depression: Neural circuitry:

Krishnan, V. & Nestler, E.J. (2008). The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature, 455, 894-902.

Pittenger, C. & Duman, R.S. (2008). Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: A convergence of mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 33, 88-109.

Hamani, C., Mayberg, H., Stone, S., Laxton, A., Haber, S., & Lozano, A.M. (2011). The subcallosal cingulate gyrus in the context of major depression.Biological Psychiatry, 69, 301-308.

Price, J.L. & Drevets, W.C. (2012). Neural circuits underlying the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 61-71.

Biological Psychiatry, Volume 74, Issue 11, 2013, 867-948.

Biological Psychiatry, Volume 74, Issue 12, 2013, 867-948.

Leibenluft, E. & Pine, D.S. (2013). Resting state functional connectivity and depression: In search of a bottom line. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 868-869.

Cryan, J.F. & Dinan, T.G. (2013). Unraveling the longstanding scars of early neurodevelopmental stress. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 788-789.

Connolly, C.G., Wu, J., Ho, T.C., Hoeft, F., Wolkowitz, O., Eisendrath, S., Frank, G., Hendren, R., Max, J.E., Paulus, M.P., Tapert, S.F., Banerjee, D., Simmons, A.N., & Yang, T.T. (2013). Resting-state functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in depressed adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 898-907.

Neural circuitry of depression:

Berman, M.G., Peltier, S., Nee, D.E., Kross, E., Deldin, P.J., & Jonides, J. (2011). Depression, rumination and the default network. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 548-555.

Slavich, G.M., O'Donovan, A., Epel, E.S., Kemeny, M.E. (2010). Black sheep get the blues: A psychobiological model of social rejection and depression. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 39-45.

Sheline, Y.I., Barch, D.M., Price, J.L., Rundle, M.M., Vaishnavi, S.N., Snyder, A.Z., Mintun, M.A., Wang, S., Coalson, R.S., & Raichle, M.E. (2009). The default mode network and self-referential processes in depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 1942-1947.

Greicius, M.D., Flores, B.H., Menon, V., Glover, G.H., Solvason, H.B., Kenna, H., Reiss, A.L., & Schatzberg, A.F. (2007). Resting-state functional connectivity in major depression: Abnormally increased contributions from subgenual cingulate cortex and thalamus. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 429-437.

Buckner, R.L., Andrews-Hanna, J.R., & Schacter, D.L. (2008). The brain's default network: Anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 1-38.

Russo, S.J. & Nestler, E.J. (2013). The brain reward circuitry in mood disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14, 609-625.

Loosening of regulatory control of PFC over subcortical circuitry in depression:

Johnstone, T., van Reekum, C.M., Urry, H.L., Kalin, N.H., & Davidson, R.J. (2007). Failure to regulate: Counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 8877-8884.

Siegle, G.J., Thompson, W., Carter, C.S., Steinhauer, S.R., & Thase, M.E. (2007). Increased amygdala and decreased dorsolateral prefrontal BOLD responses in unipolar depression: Related and independent features. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 198-209.

Anand, A., Li, Y., Wang, Y., Wu, J., Gao, S., Bukhari, L., Mathews, V.P., Kalnin, A., & Lowe, M.J. (2005). Activity and connectivity of brain mood regulating circuit in depression: A functional magnetic resonance study. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1079-1088.

Etkin, A. & Schatzberg, A.F. (2011). Common abnormalities and disorder-specific compensation during implicit regulation of emotional processing in generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 968-978.

Price, J.L. & Drevets, W.C. (2010). Neurocircuitry of mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 35, 192-216.

Price, J.L. & Drevets, W.C. (2012). Neural circuits underlying the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 61-71.

Stress, stress hormones, and plasticity of PFC-amygdala connectivity:

Maroun, M. (2006). Stress reverses plasticity in the pathway projecting from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the basolateral amygdala. European Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 2917-2922.

Roozendaal, B., McReynolds, J.R., Van der Zee, E.A., Lee, S., McGaugh, J.L., & McIntyre, C.K. (2009). Glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation depend on functional interactions between the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 14299-14308.

Urry, H.L., van Reekum, C.M., Johnstone, T., Kalin, N.H., Thurow, M.E., Schaefer, H.S., Jackson, C.A., Frye, C.J., Greischar, L.L., Alexander, A.L., & Davidson, R.J. (2006). Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 4415-4425.

Shansky, R.M. & Morrison, J.H. (2009). Stress-induced dendritic remodeling in the medial prefrontal cortex: Effects of circuit, hormones, and rest. Brain Research, 1293, 108-113.

Shansky, R.M., Hamo, C., Hof, P.R., McEwen, B.S., & Morrison, J.H. (2009). Stress-induced dendritic remodeling in the prefrontal cortex is circuit specific. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2479-2484.

Neuroplasticity and depression:

Castren, E. & Hen, R. (2013). Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions. Trends in Neurosciences.

Krishnan, V. & Nestler, E.J. (2008). The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature, 455, 894-902.

Pittenger, C. & Duman, R.S. (2008). Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: A convergence of mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 33, 88-109.

Kasper, S. & McEwen B.S. (2008). Neurobiological and clinical effects of the antidepressant tianeptine. CNS Drugs, 22, 15-26.

Bessa, J.M., Ferreira, D., Melo, I., Marques, F., Cerqueira, J.J., Palha, J.A., Almeida, O.F.X., & Sousa, N. (2009). The mood-improving actions of antidepressants do not depend on neurogenesis but are associated with neuronal remodeling. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 764-773.

Christoffel, D.J., Golden, S.A., & Russo, S.J. (2011). Structural and synaptic plasticity in stress-related disorders. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 22, 535-549.

Duman, R.S. (2009). Neuronal damage and protection in the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric illness: Stress and depression. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11, 239-255.

Kheirbek, M.A. & Hen, R. (2011). Dorsal vs ventral hippocampal neurogenesis: Implications for cognition and mood. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 373-374.


Depression: Neuroplasticity & psychotherapeutic learning:

Castren, E. & Hen, R. (2013). Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions. Trends in Neurosciences.

Karpova, N.N., Pickenhagen, A., Lindholm, J., Tiraboschi, E., Kulesskaya, N., Ágústsdóttir, A., Antila, H., Popova, D., Akamine, Y., Sullivan, R., Hen, R., Drew, L.J., & Castrén, E. (2011). Fear erasure in mice requires synergy between antidepressant drugs and extinction training. Science, 334, 1731-1734.

Neuroimaging studies of changes in neural functioning with treatment for depression:

Ritchey, M., Dolcos, F., Eddington, K.M., Strauman, T.J., & Cabeza, R. (2011). Neural correlates of emtional processing in depression: Changes with cognitive behavioral therapy and predictors of treatment response. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 577-587.

McCabe, C. & Mishor, Z. (2011). Antidepressant medications reduce subcortical-cortical resting-state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers. NeuroImage, 57, 1317-1323.

Anand, A., Li, Y., Wang, Y., Gardner, K., & Lowe, M.J. (2007). Reciprocal effects of antidepressant treatment on activity and connectivity of the mood regulating circuit: An fMRI study. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 19, 274-282.

Anand, A., Li, Y., Wang, Y., Wu, J., Gao, S., Bukhari, L., Mathews, V.P., Kalnin, A., & Lowe, M.J. (2005). Antidepressant effect on connectivity of the mood-regulating circuit: An fMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, 1334-1344.

Seminowicz, D.A., Mayberg, H.S., McIntosh, A.R., Goldapple, K., Kennedy, S., Segal, Z., & Rafi-Tari, S. (2004). Limbic-frontal circuitry in major depression: A path modeling metanalysis. NeuroImage, 22, 409-418.

Roffman, J.L., Marci, C.D., Glick, D.M., Dougherty, D.D., & Rauch, S.L. (2005). Neuroimaging and the functional neuroanatomy of psychotherapy. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1385-1398.

Goldapple, K., Segal, Z., Garson, C., Lau, M., Bieling, P., Kennedy, S., & Mayberg, H. (2004). Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Treatment-specific effects of cognitive behavior therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 34-41.

Brody, A.L., Saxena, S., Stoessel, P., Gillies, L.A., Fairbanks, L.A., Alborzian, S., Phelps, N.E., Huang, S., Wu, H., Ho, M.L., Ho, M.K., Au, S.C., Maidment, K., & Baxter, L.R. (2001). Regional brain metabolic changes in patients with major depression treated with either paroxetine or interpersonal therapy: Preliminary findings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 159, 728-737.

For review see the following (from Class 1):
Miller, G.A. (2010). Mistreating psychology in the decades of the brain. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 716-743.

Behavior-induced structural brain changes:

Draganski, B., Gaser, C. Busch, V. Schuierer, G. Bogdahn, U., & May, A. (2004). Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312.

Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Kempermann, G., Kuhn, H.G., Winkler, J., Büchel, C., & May, A. (2006). Temporal and spatial dynamics of brain structure changes during extensive learning. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 6314-6317.

Driemeyer, J., Boyke, J., Gaser, C., Büchel, C., & May, A. (2008). Changes in gray matter induced by learning - revisited. PLoS ONE, 3, e2669.

Colcombe, S.J., Erickson, K.I., Scalf, P.E., Kim, J.S., Prakash, R., McAuley, E., Elavsky, S., Marquez, D.X., Hu, L., & Kramer, A.F. (2006). Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 61A, 1166-1170.

Ilg, R., Wohlschläger, A.M., Gaser, C., Liebau, Y., Dauner, R., Wöller, A., Zimmer, C., Zihl, J., & Mühlau, M. (2008). Gray matter increase induced by practice correlates with task-specific activation: A combined functional and morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 4210-4215.

May, A., Hajak, G., Gäenßbauer, S., Steffens, T., Langguth, B., Kleinjung, T., & Eichhammer, P. (2007). Structural brain alterations following 5 days of intervention: Dynamic aspects of neuroplasticity. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 205-210.

Hölzel, B.K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S.M., Gard, T., & Lazar, S.W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191, 36-43.

Synergy between pharmacological and behavioral interventions:

Karpova, N.N., Pickenhagen, A., Lindholm, J., Tiraboschi, E., Kulesskaya, N., Ágústsdóttir, A., Antila, H., Popova, D., Akamine, Y., Sullivan, R., Hen, R., Drew, L.J., & Castrén, E. (2011). Fear erasure in mice requires synergy between antidepressant drugs and extinction training. Science, 334, 1731-1734.

Classic paper: Kandel (1998)

Rapidly acting pharmacological antidepressants and synaptic plasticity:

Murrough, J.W. (2012). Ketamine as a novel antidepressant: From synapse to behavior. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 91, 303-309.

Duman, R.S., Li, N., Liu, R.J., Duric, V., & Aghajanian, G. (2012). Signaling pathways underlying the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine. Neuropharmacology, 62, 35-41.

Mathew, S.J., Manji, H.K., & Charney, D.S. (2008). Novel drugs and therapeutic targets for severe mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 2080-2092.

Zarate, C., Machado-Vieira, R., Henter, I., Ibrahim, L., Diazgranados, N., & Salvadore, G. (2010). Glutamatergic modulators: The future of treating mood disorders? Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 18, 293-303.

Drevets., W.C. & Furey, M.L. (2010). Replication of scopolamine's antidepressant efficacy in major depressive disorder: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 432-438.

Furey, M.L., Khanna, A., Hoffman, E.M., & Drevets, W.C. (2010). Scopolamine produces larger antidepressant and antianxiety effects in women than in men. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 2479-2488.

Mathew, S.J., Murrough, J.W., aan het Rot, M., Collins, K.A., Reich, D.L., & Charney, D.S. (2010). Riluzole for relapse prevention following intravenous ketamine in treatment-resistant depression: A pilot randomized, placebo-controlled continuation trial. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 13, 71-82.

Krystal, J.H. (2010). N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonists and the promise of rapid-acting antidepressants. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 1110-1111.

Other emerging pharmacological treatments for depression:

Overview: Rakofsky, J.J., Holtzheimer, P.E., & Nemeroff, C.B. (2009). Emerging targets for antidepressant therapies. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 13, 291-302.

Schatzberg, A.F. & Lindley, S. (2008). Glucocorticoid antagonists in neuropsychotic disorders. European Journal of Pharmacology, 583, 358-364.

Otte, C., Hinkelmann, K., Moritz, S., Yassouridis, A., Jahn, H., Wiedemann, K., & Kellner, M. (2010). Modulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor as add-on treatment in depression: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44, 339-346.

Holsboer, F. & Ising, M. (2008). Central CRH system in depression and anxiety--evidence from clinical studies with CRH1 receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol, 583, 350-357.

Ising, M. & Holsboer, F. (2007). CRH-sub-1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, 15, 519-528.

Binneman, B., Feltner, D., Kolluri, S., Shi, Y., Qiu, R., & Stiger, T. (2008). A 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of CP-316,311 (a selective CRH1 antagonist) in the treatment of major depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 617-620. (negative findings)

Bodo, C. (2010). Affective disorders: A faster way to happiness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 152.

Chen, G., Twyman, R., & Manji, H.K. (2010). p11 and gene therapy for severe psychiatric disorders: A practical goal? Science Translational Medicine, 54, 54ps51.

Segal, Z.V., Bieling, P., Young, T., MacQueen, G., Cooke, R., Martin, L., Bloch, R., & Levitan, R.D. (2010). Antidepressant monotherapy vs sequential pharmacotherapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or placebo, for relapse prophylaxis in recurrent depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 1256-1264.

Yanpallewar, S.U., Fernandes, K., Marathe, S.V., Vadodaria, K.C., Jhaveri, D., Rommelfanger, K., Ladiwala, U., Jha, S., Muthig, V., Hein, L., Bartlett, P., Weinshenker, D., & Vaidya, V.A. (2010). Alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade accelerates the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 1096-1109.

Holsboer, F. (2008). How can we realize the promise of personalized antidepressant medicines? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 638-646.

Somatic treatments for depression (ECT, rTMS, deep brain stimulation):

Rosa, M.A. & Lisanby, S.H. (2012). Somatic treatments for mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 37, 102-116.

George, M.S. & Post, R.M. (2011). Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for acute treatment of medication-resistant depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 356-364.

Holtzheimer, P.E., Kelley, M.E., Gross, R.E., Filkowski, M.M., Garlow, S.J., Barrocas, A., Wint, D., Craighead, M.C., Kozarsky, J., Chismar, R., Moreines, J.L., Mewes, K., Riva Posse, P., Gutman, D.A., & Mayberg, H.S. (2012). Subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 2012.

Lozano, A.M., Giacobbe, P., Hamani, C., Rizvi, S.J., Kennedy, S.H., Kolivakis, T.T., Debonnel, G., Sadikot, A.F., Lam, R.W., Howard, A.K., Ilcewicz-Klimek, M., Honey, C.R., & Mayberg, H.S. (2012). A multicenter pilot study of subcallosal cingulate area deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Neurosurgery, 116, 315-322.

Holtzheimer, P.E. & Mayberg, H.S. (2011). Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 34, 289-307.

Kennedy, S.H., Giacobbe, P., Rizvi, S.J., Placenza, F.M., Nishikawa, Y., Mayberg, H.S., & Lozano, A.M. (2011). Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: Follow-up after 3 to 6 years. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 502-510.

Lozano, A.M., Mayberg, H.S., Giacobbe, P., Hamani, C., Craddock, R.C., & Kennedy, S.H. (2008). Subcallosal cingulate gyrus deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Biological Psychiatry, 64, 461-467.

Greenberg, B.D., Malone, D.A., Friehs, G.M., Rezai, A.R., Kubu, C.S., Malloy, P.F., Salloway, S.P., Okun, M.S., Goodman, W.K., & Rasmussen, S.A. (2006). Three-year outcomes in deep brain stimulation for highly resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31, 2384-2393.

Schlaepfer, T.E., Cohen, M.X., Frick, C., Kosel, M., Brodesser, D., Axmacher, N., Joe, A.Y., Kreft, M., Lenartz, D., & Sturm, V. (2008). Deep brain stimulation to reward circuitry alleviates anhedonia in refractory major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 368-377.

Koch, G. (2010). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: A tool for human cerebellar plasticity. Functional Neuroanatomy, 25, 159-163.

Optogenetic and virogenetic techniques:

Covington, H.E., Lobo, M.K., Maze, I., Vialou, V., Hyman, J.M., Zaman, S., LaPlant, Q., Mouzon, E., Ghose, S., Tamminga, C.A., Neve, R.L., Deisseroth, K., & Nestler, E.J. (2010). Antidepressant effect of optogenetic stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 16082-16090.

Deisseroth, K.. (2011). Optogenetics. Nature Methods, 8, 26-29.

Han, M.H. & Friedman, A.K. (2012). Virogenetic and optogenetic mechanisms to define potential therapeutic targets in psychiatric disorders. Neuropharmacology, 62, 89-100.

Effects of antidepressant medications on HPA-brain interactions:

Pariante, C.M. (2009). Risk factors for development of depression and psychosis: Glucocorticoid receptors and pituitary implications for treatment with antidepressant and glucocorticoids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1179, 144-152.

Mason, B.L. & Pariante, C.M. (2006). The effects of antidepressants on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Drug News & Perspectives, 19, 603-608.

Pariante, C.M., Thomas, S.A., Lovestone, S., Makoff, A., & Kerwin, R.W. (2004). Do antidepressants regulate how cortisol affects the brain? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 423-447.


Molecular genetics:

Lee, E.R. & Alisch, R.S. (2012). Early-life disruption of epigenetic marks may contribute to the origins of mental illness. Epigenomics, 4, 355-357.

Ndlovu, M.N., Denis, H., & Fuks, F. (2011). Exposing the DNA methylome iceberg. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 36, 381-387.

Menke, A., Klengel, T., & Binder, E.B. (2012). Epigenetics, depression and antidepressant treatment. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18, 5879-5889.

Flint, J. & Kendler, K.S. (2014). The genetics of major depression. Neuron, 81, 484-503.

Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. (in press). Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: A genome-wide analysis. Lancet.

Alisch, R.S., Barwick, B.G., Chopra, P., Myrick, L.K., Satten, G.A., Conneely, K.N., & Warren, S.T. (2012). Age-associated DNA methylation in pediatric populations. Genome Research, 22, 623-632.

Klengel, T., Mehta, D., Anacker, C., Rex-Haffner, M., Pruessner, J.C., Pariante, C.M., Pace, T.W., Mercer, K.B., Mayberg, H.S., Bradley, B., Nemeroff, C.B., Holsboer, F., Heim, C.M., Ressler, K.J., Rein, T., & Binder, E.B. (2013). Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene-childhood trauma interactions. Nature Neuroscience, 16, 33-41.

Weaver, I.C.G., Cervoni, N., Champagne, F.A., D'Alessio, A.C., Sharma, S., Seckl, J.R., Dymov, S., Szyf, M., & Meaney, M.J. (2004). Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 847-854.

Weaver, I.C.G., Diorio, J., Seckl, J.R., Szyf, M., & Meaney, M.J. (2004). Early environmental regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression: Characterization of intracellular mediators and potential genomic target sites. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1024, 182-212.

Kaffman, A. & Meaney, M.J. (2007). Neurodevelopmental sequelae of postnatal maternal care in rodents: Clinical and research implications of molecular insights. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 224-244.

Francis, D.D., Diorio, J., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (2002). Environmental enrichment reverses the effects of maternal separation on stress reactivity. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 7840-7843.

Hackman, D.A., Farah, M.J., & Meaney, M.J. (2010). Socioeconomic status and the brain: Mechanistic insights from human and animal research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 651-659.


Developmental psychopathology:

Paus, T., Keshavan, M., & Giedd, J.N. (2008). Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 947-957.

Anxiety and depression in childhood and adolescence:

Burghy, C.A., Stodola, D.E., Ruttle, P.L., Molloy, E.K., Armstrong, J.M., Oler, J.A., Fox, M.E., Hayes, A.S., Kalin, N.H., Essex, M.J., Davidson, R.J., & Birn, R.M. (2012). Developmental pathways to amygdala-prefrontal function and internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Nature Neuroscience, 15, 1736-1741.

Miller, A. (2007). Social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression. Brain and Cognition, 65, 47-68.

Forbes, E.E. & Dahl, R.E. (2005). Neural systems of positive affect: Relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Development and Psychopathology, 17, 827-850.

Forbes, E.E., Hariri, A.R., Martin, S.L., Silk, J.S., Moyles, D.L., Fisher, P.M., Brown, S.M., Ryan, N.D., Birmaher, B., Axelson, D.A., & Dahl, R.E. (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 64-73.

Thomas, K.M., Drevets, W.C., Dahl, R.E., Ryan, N.D., Birmaher, B., Eccard, C.H., Axelson, D., Whalen, P.J., & Casey, B.J. (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 1057-1063.

Ernst, M., Pine, D.S., & Hardin, M. (2006). Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence. Psychological Medicine, 36, 299-312.

McClure, E.B., Monk, C.S., Nelson, E.E., Parrish, J.M., Adler, A., Blair, R.J.R., Fromm, S., Charney, D.S., Leibenluft, E., Ernst, M., & Pine, D.S. (2007). Abnormal attention modulation of fear circuit function in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 97-106.

Monk, C.S., Telzer, E.H., Mogg, K., Bradley, B.P., Mai, X., Louro, H.M.C., Chen, G., McClure-Tone, E.B., Ernst, M., & Pine, D.S. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 568-576.

Lau, J.Y.F., Goldman, D., Buzas, B., Fromm, S.J., Guyer, A.E., Hodgkinson, C., Monk, C.S., Nelson, E.E., Shen, P.-H., Pine, D.S., & Ernst, M. (2009). Amygdala function and 5-HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety and major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 349-355.

McClure, E.B., Pope, K., Hoberman, A.J., Pine, D.S., & Leibenluft, E. (2003). Facial expression recognition in adolescents with mood and anxiety disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1172-1174.

Zahn-Waxler, C., Klimes-Doughan, B., & Slattery, M.J. (2000). Internalizing problems of childhood and adolescence: Prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 443-466.

Schwartz, C.E., Wright, C.I., Shin, L.M., Kagan, J., & Rauch, S.L. (2003). Inhibited and uninhibited infants "grown up": Adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science, 300, 1952-1953.
Supporting Online Material for C. Schwartz et al., 10.1126/science.1083703

Attention deficit disorder:

van Ewijk, H., Heslenfeld, D.J., Zwiers, M.P., Buitelaar, J.K., & Oosterlaan, J. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 1093-1106.

Scheres, A., Milham, M.P., Knutson, B., & Castellanos, F.X. (2007). Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 720-724.

Krause, K., Dresel, S.H., Krause, J., la Fougere, C., & Ackenheil, M. (2003). The dopamine transporter and neuroimaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 27, 605-613.

Wilens, T.E., Biederman, J., & Spencer, T.J. (2002). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 53, 113-131.

Mostofsky, S.H., Cooper, K.L., Kates, W.R., Denckla, M.B., & Kaufman, W.E. (2002). Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 785-794.


Dalton, K.M., Nacewicz, B.M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H.S., Gernsbacher, M.A., Goldsmith, H.H., Alexander, A.L., & Davidson, R.J. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 519-526.

Rutter, M. (2005). Aetiology of autism: Findings and questions. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 231-238.

Pregnancy and infancy:

Spinelli, S., Chefer, S., Suomi, S.J., Higley, J.D., Barr, C.S., & Stein, E. (2009). Early-life stress induces long-term morphologic changes in primate brain. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 658-665.

Coe, C.L., Kramer, M., Czeh, B., Gould, E., Reeves, A.J., Kirschbaum, C., & Fuchs, E. (2003). Prenatal stress diminishes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of juvenile rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 1025-1034.

DiPietro, J.A., Novak, M.F.S.X., Costigan, K.A., Atella, L.D., Reusing, S.P. (2006). Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy in relation to child development at age two. Child Development, 77, 573–587.

Parker, K.J., Buckmaster, C.L., Schatzberg, A.F., & Lyons, D.M. (2004). Prospective investigation of stress inoculation in young monkeys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 933-941.

Parker, K.J., Buckmaster, C.L., Sundlass, K., Schatzberg, A.F., & Lyons, D.M. (2006). Maternal mediation, stress inoculation, and the development of neuroendocrine stress resistance in primates. PNAS, 103, 3000-3005.

Pollak, S.D. (2008). Mechanisms linking early experience and the emergence of emotions: Illustrations from the study of maltreated children. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 370-375.

Fries, A.B., Ziegler, T.E., Kurian, J.R., Jacoris, S., & Pollak, S.D. (2005). Early experience in humans is associated with changes in neuropeptides critical for regulating social behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 17237-17240.

Pollak, S.D. & Kistler, D.J. (2002). Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 9072-9076.

Pollak, S.D. & Sinha, P. (2002). Effects of early experience in children's recognition of facial displays of emotion. Developmental Psychology, 38, 784-791.

Buss, K.A., Malmstadt Schumacher, J.R., Dolski, I., Kalin, N.H., Goldsmith, H.H., & Davidson, R.J. (2003). Right frontal brain activity, cortisol, and withdrawal behavior in 6-month-old infants. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 11-20.


Synthesis and review:

Miresco, M.J. & Kirmayer, L.J. (2006). The persistence of mind-brain dualism in psychiatric reasoning about clinical scenarios. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 913-918.

Lent, R., Azevedo, F.A.C., Andrade-Moraes, C.H., & Pinto, A.V.O. (2012). How many neurons do you have? Some dogmas of quantitative neuroscience under revision. European Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 1-9.

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